17 Systems Engineering The graphic shows how the Air Force- defined system engineering processes and technical management processes are aligned and organized as part of the well-known systems engineering “vee” diagram. On a practical level, whether professionally or personally, we are all system engineers because we all manage systems. That includes us, our spouses or partners, and our children. We all make decisions and manage risks. Everyone thinks at least informally about requirements, including why the requirements are there and what the requirements mean, whether designing a building or setting up a home or business. Model-based Systems Engineering Systems engineers are now frequently engaging with model-based systems engineering. What does it mean to be doing model-based systems engineering? This form of engineering organizes engineering data and processes it within descriptive models. These system models are large relational databases that are related to analysis tools. They capture requirements, risk, schedule and costs. Analysis tools take model information and analyze it, then create estimates and simulations. The system models, or architectures, contain more information than the “traditional” design- focused physical engineering model. Analytical tools (red circle, bottom left) are changing faster than the models themselves (blue circle, top). Models and tools are fed by or archived in a data lake or data storage (yellow circle, bottom right). The models are always available through data management processes, analytical tools, and the inputs and outputs of analysis. The arrows between the circles show these critical integrating functions.